These surgeries are performed in patients with early stages of arthritis were lesser invasive surgical techniques can help in prolonging the life of the joint. The surgeries include arthroscopic lavage & debridement, Stem cell injections, Hyaluronic acid injections, High tibial osteotomy, Core decompression with stem cell injections, Sub acromial decompression.
Joint preservation surgery is actually a concept of restoring normal and pain-free function of the knee, shoulder, and hip joint. The preservation of joint is achieved through the use of multi-modality treatment options that can include physical therapy, injections, activity modifications, medications, and sometimes surgery.
To restore the functionality of a joint and delay the need for joint replacement surgeries is the main aim of joint preservation surgery. The most common indication for joint preservation in the adult population is osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is a condition in which the protective cartilage on the ends of the bones starts to wear down within the joint.
Arthroscopic is the most common form of joint preservation surgery. A clean out of all the pain mediators in the knee may be indicated in this condition. It would involve removing irritated synovium, removing offending bone spurs, releasing scar tissues, and trying to improve a patient motion in both their tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint. It would especially involve patellar mobilization and try to regain full knee extension.
Other forms of joint preservation surgery can be more precise. These include treatment of localized areas of arthritis with a microfracture, a fresh allograft, or an autogenous osteochondral transfer. These can be performed with or without a meniscus transplant or a proximal tibial, or distal femoral osteotomy. All of these are considered to be joint preservation surgeries. It is usually indicated in the patients who have a systematic clinical exam, radiographic workup, and MRI scans which demonstrate their suitability for these procedures.
The common symptoms of joint degeneration include joint stiffness that lasts longer than fifteen minutes, swelling or tenderness in the body articulation points, cracking or creaking in the joints, and limitation of motion in joints. Also, stiffness and pain after remaining in the same position for a long period of time can indicate damage or degeneration of the body’s articulation points.
Joint preservation surgery help in reduction of pain and inflammation, more natural range of motion and strength capabilities, return to function, increased mobility, and the prevention or delay of the requirement for destruction/full replacement of normal body anatomy.
The results of joint preservation surgery generally depend upon the patient working with a physical therapist following surgery. Proper rehabilitation by physiotherapy is essential to get the best results after this surgery. If the patients do not participate in physical therapy, they may have to face a recurrence of scarring, muscle atrophy, and stiffness.
Dr. Jayant Kumar is a renowned orthopaedic surgeon based in JAMSHEDPUR, Jharkhand. He has an experience of 10 years in orthpedic surgery in india and abroad. His special interest is in the fields of Joint Replacement, Arthroscopy and Sports Injury and Management of Complex Trauma. He is attched to hopitals like Indian Spinal Injuries Center New Delhi, PSRI Hospital New Delhi, Aryan Hospital Gurgoan.